Either way, the simple fact that Microsoft is apparently willing to maintain any restrictions on its own ability to put first-party games on Game Pass is rather remarkable, given that making Game Pass more appealing is one of the reasons for its acquisition spree. The irony of Sony making deals like this one while fretting about COD's future on PlayStation probably isn't lost on Microsoft's lawyers, which is no doubt part of why they brought it up to the CMA.
While it's absolutely reasonable to worry about a world in which more and more properties are concentrated in the hands of singular, giant megacorps, it does look a bit odd if you're complaining about losing access to games while stopping them from joining competing services. We'll find out if the CMA agrees when it completes its in-depth, "Phase 2" investigation opens in new tab into the Activision Blizzard acquisition, which is some way off yet.
For now, we'll have to content ourselves with poring over these kinds of corporate submissions for more interesting tidbits like this one. So far, we've already learned that Microsoft privately has a gloomy forecast for the future of cloud gaming opens in new tab , and that the company thinks Sony shouldn't worry so much since, hey, future COD games might be as underwhelming as Vanguard opens in new tab. Who knows what we'll learn next? Sign up to get the best content of the week, and great gaming deals, as picked by the editors.
One of Josh's first memories is of playing Quake 2 on the family computer when he was much too young to be doing that, and he's been irreparably game-brained ever since. His writing has been featured in Vice, Fanbyte, and the Financial Times. Notably, in , half or more across parties, regions, and demographic groups were optimistic. Today, about eight in ten Democrats—compared to about half of independents and about one in ten Republicans—approve of Governor Newsom.
Across demographic groups, about half or more approve of how Governor Newsom is handling his job. Approval of Congress among adults has been below 40 percent for all of after seeing a brief run above 40 percent for all of Democrats are far more likely than Republicans to approve of Congress.
Fewer than half across regions and demographic groups approve of Congress. Approval in March was at 44 percent for adults and 39 percent for likely voters. Across demographic groups, about half or more approve among women, younger adults, African Americans, Asian Americans, and Latinos.
Views are similar across education and income groups, with just fewer than half approving. Approval in March was at 41 percent for adults and 36 percent for likely voters. Across regions, approval reaches a majority only in the San Francisco Bay Area. Across demographic groups, approval reaches a majority only among African Americans.
This map highlights the five geographic regions for which we present results; these regions account for approximately 90 percent of the state population. Residents of other geographic areas in gray are included in the results reported for all adults, registered voters, and likely voters, but sample sizes for these less-populous areas are not large enough to report separately.
The PPIC Statewide Survey is directed by Mark Baldassare, president and CEO and survey director at the Public Policy Institute of California. Coauthors of this report include survey analyst Deja Thomas, who was the project manager for this survey; associate survey director and research fellow Dean Bonner; and survey analyst Rachel Lawler.
The Californians and Their Government survey is supported with funding from the Arjay and Frances F. Findings in this report are based on a survey of 1, California adult residents, including 1, interviewed on cell phones and interviewed on landline telephones. The sample included respondents reached by calling back respondents who had previously completed an interview in PPIC Statewide Surveys in the last six months.
Interviews took an average of 19 minutes to complete. Interviewing took place on weekend days and weekday nights from October 14—23, Cell phone interviews were conducted using a computer-generated random sample of cell phone numbers. Additionally, we utilized a registration-based sample RBS of cell phone numbers for adults who are registered to vote in California. All cell phone numbers with California area codes were eligible for selection. After a cell phone user was reached, the interviewer verified that this person was age 18 or older, a resident of California, and in a safe place to continue the survey e.
Cell phone respondents were offered a small reimbursement to help defray the cost of the call. Cell phone interviews were conducted with adults who have cell phone service only and with those who have both cell phone and landline service in the household. Landline interviews were conducted using a computer-generated random sample of telephone numbers that ensured that both listed and unlisted numbers were called.
Additionally, we utilized a registration-based sample RBS of landline phone numbers for adults who are registered to vote in California. All landline telephone exchanges in California were eligible for selection. For both cell phones and landlines, telephone numbers were called as many as eight times. When no contact with an individual was made, calls to a number were limited to six.
Also, to increase our ability to interview Asian American adults, we made up to three additional calls to phone numbers estimated by Survey Sampling International as likely to be associated with Asian American individuals. Accent on Languages, Inc. The survey sample was closely comparable to the ACS figures. To estimate landline and cell phone service in California, Abt Associates used state-level estimates released by the National Center for Health Statistics—which used data from the National Health Interview Survey NHIS and the ACS.
The estimates for California were then compared against landline and cell phone service reported in this survey. We also used voter registration data from the California Secretary of State to compare the party registration of registered voters in our sample to party registration statewide. The sampling error, taking design effects from weighting into consideration, is ±3.
This means that 95 times out of , the results will be within 3. The sampling error for unweighted subgroups is larger: for the 1, registered voters, the sampling error is ±4. For the sampling errors of additional subgroups, please see the table at the end of this section. Sampling error is only one type of error to which surveys are subject.
Results may also be affected by factors such as question wording, question order, and survey timing. We present results for five geographic regions, accounting for approximately 90 percent of the state population.
Residents of other geographic areas are included in the results reported for all adults, registered voters, and likely voters, but sample sizes for these less-populous areas are not large enough to report separately. We also present results for congressional districts currently held by Democrats or Republicans, based on residential zip code and party of the local US House member.
We compare the opinions of those who report they are registered Democrats, registered Republicans, and no party preference or decline-to-state or independent voters; the results for those who say they are registered to vote in other parties are not large enough for separate analysis. We also analyze the responses of likely voters—so designated per their responses to survey questions about voter registration, previous election participation, intentions to vote this year, attention to election news, and current interest in politics.
The percentages presented in the report tables and in the questionnaire may not add to due to rounding. Additional details about our methodology can be found at www. pdf and are available upon request through surveys ppic. October 14—23, 1, California adult residents; 1, California likely voters English, Spanish.
Margin of error ±3. Percentages may not add up to due to rounding. Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that Gavin Newsom is handling his job as governor of California? Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that the California Legislature is handling its job?
Do you think things in California are generally going in the right direction or the wrong direction? Thinking about your own personal finances—would you say that you and your family are financially better off, worse off, or just about the same as a year ago? Next, some people are registered to vote and others are not. Are you absolutely certain that you are registered to vote in California? Are you registered as a Democrat, a Republican, another party, or are you registered as a decline-to-state or independent voter?
Would you call yourself a strong Republican or not a very strong Republican? Do you think of yourself as closer to the Republican Party or Democratic Party? Which one of the seven state propositions on the November 8 ballot are you most interested in?
Initiative Constitutional Amendment and Statute. It allows in-person sports betting at racetracks and tribal casinos, and requires that racetracks and casinos that offer sports betting to make certain payments to the state—such as to support state regulatory costs. The fiscal impact is increased state revenues, possibly reaching tens of millions of dollars annually. Some of these revenues would support increased state regulatory and enforcement costs that could reach the low tens of millions of dollars annually.
If the election were held today, would you vote yes or no on Proposition 26? Initiative Constitutional Amendment. It allows Indian tribes and affiliated businesses to operate online and mobile sports wagering outside tribal lands.
It directs revenues to regulatory costs, homelessness programs, and nonparticipating tribes. Some revenues would support state regulatory costs, possibly reaching the mid-tens of millions of dollars annually. If the election were held today, would you vote yes or no on Proposition 27? Initiative Statute. It allocates tax revenues to zero-emission vehicle purchase incentives, vehicle charging stations, and wildfire prevention. The development of tourism in this region has been identified as having the ability to create jobs and improve the economy.
South Africa, Namibia, Mauritius, Botswana, Ghana, Cape Verde, Tanzania and Kenya have been identified as having well developed tourism industries. Only seven African countries are not geopolitically a part of sub-Saharan Africa: Algeria , Egypt , Libya , Morocco , Tunisia , Western Sahara claimed by Morocco and Sudan ; they form the UN subregion of Northern Africa , which also makes up the largest bloc of the Arab World.
Nevertheless, some international organisations include Sudan as part of sub-Saharan Africa. All other African countries have at least significant portions of their territory within sub-Saharan Africa. Depending on classification Sudan is often not considered part of sub-Saharan Africa, as it is considered part of North Africa.
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Further information: Afrotropical realm ; Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands ; and List of tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests ecoregions.
Further information: History of Africa , History of West Africa , Central Africa § History , East Africa § History , Horn of Africa § History , African empires , List of kingdoms in pre-colonial Africa § List of African kingdoms , and African archaeology. Further information: History of Africa § Prehistory. Main article: History of West Africa. Further information: Ghana Empire , Mali Empire , Songhay Empire , Kingdom of Benin , and Kingdom of Nri.
Main article: Central Africa § History. Further information: History of Sudan. Main article: Horn of Africa § History. Further information: History of Ethiopia , History of Somalia , History of Eritrea , History of Djibouti , and Ethiopian historiography. Further information: Southeast Africa § History , and History of Africa § Southeast Africa. Main article: History of Southern Africa. Further information: Kingdom of Mutapa. Main article: Demographics of Africa. Further information: List of African countries by population.
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Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area and regions of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara. These include West Africa , East Africa , Central Africa and Southern Africa. Geopolitically, in addition to the African countries and territories that are situated fully in that specified region, the term may also include polities that only have part of their territory located in that region, per the definition of the United Nations UN.
UN, WHO, World Bank, etc. The African Union uses a different regional breakdown, recognizing all 55 Member States on the continent - grouping them into 5 distinct and standard regions.
The term serves as a grouping counterpart to North Africa , which is instead grouped with the definition of MENA i. Middle East —North Africa as it is part of the Arab world , and most North African states are likewise members of the Arab League. However, while they are also member states of the Arab League, the Comoros , Djibouti , Somalia , and Mauritania and sometimes Sudan are all geographically considered to be part of sub-Saharan Africa.
Since probably BCE ,   the Saharan and sub-Saharan regions of Africa have been separated by the extremely harsh climate of the sparsely populated Sahara, forming an effective barrier that is interrupted only by the Nile in Sudan, though navigation on the Nile was blocked by the Sudd and the river's cataracts.
There is also an evident genetic divide between North Africa and sub-Saharan Africa that dates back to the Neolithic. The Sahara pump theory explains how flora and fauna including Homo sapiens left Africa to penetrate Eurasia and beyond. African pluvial periods are associated with a " Wet Sahara " phase, during which larger lakes and more rivers existed.
The ancient Greeks sometimes referred to sub-Saharan Africa as Aethiopia , but sometimes also applied this name more specifically to a state, originally applied to the Kingdom of Kush and the Sudan area, but then usurped by Axum in the 4th century which led to the name being designated to the nation of Ethiopia. Geographers historically divided the region into several distinct ethnographic sections based on each area's respective inhabitants. Commentators in Arabic in the medieval period used the general term bilâd as-sûdân 'Land of the Blacks' for the vast Sudan region an expression denoting West and Central Africa ,  or sometimes extending from the coast of West Africa to Western Sudan.
The geographers drew an explicit ethnographic distinction between the Sudan region and its analogue Zanj, from the area to their extreme east on the Red Sea coast in the Horn of Africa. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the populations south of the Sahara were divided into three broad ancestral groups: Hamites and Semites in the Horn of Africa and Sahel related to those in North Africa, who spoke languages belonging to the Afroasiatic family; Negroes in most of the rest of the subcontinent hence, the toponym Black Africa for Africa south of the Sahara  , who spoke languages belonging to the Niger-Congo and Nilo-Saharan families; and Khoisan in Southern Africa , who spoke languages belonging to the Khoisan family.
The term "sub-Saharan" has been criticized by Herbert Ekwe-Ekwe  as racist  because it refers to the area south of the Sahara by geographical conventions as opposed to North Africa , which refers to a cardinal direction. Ekwe-Ekwe considers the term to imply a linguistic connotation of inferiority through its use of the prefix sub- Latin for 'under' or 'below'; cf. sub-arctic , which he sees as a linguistic vestige of European colonialism.
Sub-Saharan Africa has a wide variety of climate zones or biomes. South Africa and the Democratic Republic of the Congo in particular are considered megadiverse countries. It has a dry winter season and a wet summer season. According to paleontology , early hominid skull anatomy was similar to that of their close cousins, the great African forest apes , gorilla and chimpanzee.
However, they had adopted a bipedal locomotion and freed hands, giving them a crucial advantage enabling them to live in both forested areas and on the open savanna at a time when Africa was drying up, with savanna encroaching on forested areas. This occurred 10 million to 5 million years ago. By 3 million years ago several australopithecine hominid species had developed throughout southern , eastern and central Africa. They were tool users rather than tool manufacturers. The next major evolutionary step occurred around 2.
In hunting, H. habilis was most likely not capable of competing with large predators and was more prey than hunter, although H. habilis probably did steal eggs from nests and may have been able to catch small game and weakened larger prey such as cubs and older animals. The tools were classed as Oldowan. Roughly 1. From Homo ergaster , Homo erectus upright man evolved 1. Some of the earlier representatives of this species were small-brained and used primitive stone tools , much like H.
The brain later grew in size, and H. erectus eventually developed a more complex stone tool technology called the Acheulean. Potentially the first hominid to engage in hunting, H. erectus mastered the art of making fire.
They were the first hominids to leave Africa, going on to colonize the entire Old World , and perhaps later on giving rise to Homo floresiensis. Although some recent writers suggest that H. georgicus , a H. habilis descendant , was the first and most primitive hominid to ever live outside Africa, many scientists consider H.
georgicus to be an early and primitive member of the H. erectus species. The fossil and genetic evidence shows Homo sapiens developed in southern and eastern Africa by around , to , years ago. Between 50, and 60, years ago, their expansion out of Africa launched the colonization of the planet by modern humans. By 10, BCE, Homo sapiens had spread to all corners of the world. This dispersal of the human species is suggested by linguistic, cultural and genetic evidence.
During the 11th millennium BP , pottery was independently invented in West Africa, with the earliest pottery there dating to about 9, BC from central Mali. After the Sahara became a desert, it did not present a totally impenetrable barrier for travelers between north and south because of the application of animal husbandry towards carrying water, food, and supplies across the desert. Prior to the introduction of the camel ,  the use of oxen, mule, and horses for desert crossing was common, and trade routes followed chains of oases that were strung across the desert.
The trans-saharan trade was in full motion by BCE with Carthage being a major economic force for its establishment. The Bantu expansion is a major migration movement that originated in West Central Africa possibly around Cameroon around BCE, reaching East and Central Africa by BCE and Southern Africa by the early centuries CE.
The Djenné-Djenno city-state flourished from BCE to CE and was influential to the development of the Ghana Empire. The Nok culture of Nigeria lasting from 1, BCE to CE is known from a type of terracotta figure. There were a number of medieval empires of the southern Sahara and the Sahel, based on trans-Saharan trade , including the Ghana Empire and the Mali Empire , Songhai Empire , the Kanem Empire and the subsequent Bornu Empire.
The Great Mosque of Djenne is most reflective of Sahelian architecture and is the largest adobe building in the world. In the forest zone, several states and empires such as Bono State , Akwamu and others emerged. The Ashanti Empire arose in the 18th century in modern-day Ghana. Nri was famous for having a priest-king who wielded no military power.
Nri was a rare African state which was a haven for freed slaves and outcasts who sought refuge in their territory. Other major states included the kingdoms of Ifẹ and Oyo in the western block of Nigeria which became prominent about — and respectively, and center of Yoruba culture.
The Yoruba's built massive mud walls around their cities, the most famous being Sungbo's Eredo. Another prominent kingdom in southwestern Nigeria was the Kingdom of Benin 9th—11th century whose power lasted between the 15th and 19th century and was one of the greatest Empires of African history documented all over the world.
Their dominance reached as far as the well-known city of Eko which was named Lagos by the Portuguese traders and other early European settlers. The Edo -speaking people of Benin are known for their famous bronze casting and rich coral, wealth, ancient science and technology and the Walls of Benin , which is the largest man-made structure in the world.
In the 18th century, the Oyo and the Aro confederacy were responsible for most of the slaves exported from modern-day Nigeria, selling them to European slave traders. In , British claims to a West African sphere of influence received international recognition, and in the following year the Royal Niger Company was chartered under the leadership of Sir George Goldie.
In , the company's territory came under the control of the British government, which moved to consolidate its hold over the area of modern Nigeria. On 1 January , Nigeria became a British protectorate as part of the British Empire , the foremost world power at the time. Nigeria was granted its independence in during the period of decolonization. Archeological finds in Central Africa provide evidence of human settlement that may date back over 10, years.
The area is located approximately 60 km 37 mi southwest of Lake Chad, and has been radiocarbon dated to the first millennium BCE.
Trade and improved agricultural techniques supported more sophisticated societies, leading to the early civilizations of Sao , Kanem , Bornu , Shilluk , Baguirmi , and Wadai. Following the Bantu Migration into Central Africa, during the 14th century, the Luba Kingdom in southeast Congo came about under a king whose political authority derived from religious, spiritual legitimacy.
Rival kingship factions which split from the Luba Kingdom later moved among the Lunda people, marrying into its elite and laying the foundation of the Lunda Empire in the 16th century. The ruling dynasty centralised authority among the Lunda under the Mwata Yamyo or Mwaant Yaav. The Mwata Yamyo's legitimacy, like that of the Luba king, came from being viewed as a spiritual religious guardian. This imperial cult or system of divine kings was spread to most of central Africa by rivals in kingship migrating and forming new states.
Many new states received legitimacy by claiming descent from the Lunda dynasties. The Kingdom of Kongo existed from the Atlantic west to the Kwango river to the east. During the 15th century, the Bakongo farming community was united with its capital at M'banza-Kongo , under the king title, Manikongo.
Nubia , covered by present-day northern Sudan and southern Egypt , was referred to as " Aethiopia " "land of the burnt face" by the Greeks. Nubia in her greatest phase is considered sub-Saharan Africa's oldest urban civilisation. Nubia was a major source of gold for the ancient world. Nubians built famous structures and numerous pyramids.
Sudan, the site of ancient Nubia, has more pyramids than anywhere else in the world. The Axumite Empire spanned the southern Sahara, south Arabia and the Sahel along the western shore of the Red Sea.
Located in northern Ethiopia and Eritrea , Aksum was deeply involved in the trade network between India and the Mediterranean. Growing from the proto-Aksumite Iron Age period c. The Aksumites constructed monolithic stelae to cover the graves of their kings, such as King Ezana's Stele. The later Zagwe dynasty , established in the 12th century, built churches out of solid rock.
These rock-hewn structures include the Church of St. George at Lalibela. In ancient Somalia , city-states flourished such as Opone , Mosyllon and Malao that competed with the Sabaeans , Parthians and Axumites for the wealthy Indo — Greco — Roman trade. In the Middle Ages several powerful Somali empires dominated the region's trade, including the Ajuran Sultanate , which excelled in hydraulic engineering and fortress building,  the Sultanate of Adal , whose General Ahmed Gurey was the first African commander in history to use cannon warfare on the continent during Adal's conquest of the Ethiopian Empire ,  and the Geledi Sultanate , whose military dominance forced governors of the Omani empire north of the city of Lamu to pay tribute to the Somali Sultan Ahmed Yusuf.
According to the theory of recent African origin of modern humans , the mainstream position held within the scientific community, all humans originate from either Southeast Africa or the Horn of Africa.
So you want to trade full time from home and have an independent trading lifestyle? Carol S. Archived from the original on 16 January Retrieved 4 July Approval in March was at 44 percent for adults and 39 percent for likely voters. In West Africa, again cotton is the material of choice. World History Connected.Oils include palm oil and shea butter Sahel. Of these, Dyck Co-Director Center for Public Opinion University of Massachusetts, Lowell. Momentous achievements for sub-Saharan African football. Beverages include ting fermented sorghum or maizemilk, chibuku milky beer. Main article: History of West Africa.